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รายชื่อ 10 สุดยอดของการค้นพบสิ่งมีชีวิตชนิดใหม่ 2009 MUSLIMTHAIPOST

 

รายชื่อ 10 สุดยอดของการค้นพบสิ่งมีชีวิตชนิดใหม่ 2009


611 ผู้ชม


มีทั้งพืช สัตว์ และแบคทีเรีย ที่น่าสนใจ ลองเข้าไปดูรายละเอียดข้างในน่ะครับ   

 


          ทุกๆปี คณะกรรมการคัดเลือกการค้นพบสิ่งมีชีวิตในโลกของ IISE (International Institute for Species Exploration) ตั้งอยู่ที่ Arizona State University ประเทศสหรัฐอเมริกา จะประกาศรายชื่อ 10 สุดยอดของการค้นพบสิ่งมีชีวิตชนิดใหม่ จากจำนวนการค้นพบชนิดใหม่หลายพันชนิดทั่วโลก

          และในปีนี้การประกาศรายชื่อ 10 สุดยอดของการค้นพบสิ่งมีชีวิตชนิดใหม่เมื่อวันที่ 23 พฤษภาคม 2552 โดยคณะกรรมการตัดสินผู้ทรงคุณวุฒิจาก 14 สถาบันที่มีชื่อเสียง อาทิ Harvard University, University of Kansas, Natural History Museum London, Royal Botanic Garden Kew UK, ICZN, CSIRO Australia ได้ทำการคัดเลือกจากผลงานการค้นพบที่ได้บรรยายรายละเอียดแล้วใน ค.ศ. 2008 (พ.ศ. 2551)  โดยสิ่งมีชีวิตทั้ง 10 ชนิด มีดังนี้

          1. A Palm that Flowers Itself to Death 
          2. Phantastic Phasmatid 
          3. Pea-sized Pony 
          4. A Mere Thread of a Snake 
          5. Welsh Rare Bit
          6. A Snail that's Whorls Apart 
          7. Finding Nemo's True Blue Cousin 
          8. Devonian Delivery 
          9. No Jump in this Bean 
        10. Spray-on New Species 

1. A Palm that Flowers Itself to Death

รายชื่อ 10 สุดยอดของการค้นพบสิ่งมีชีวิตชนิดใหม่ 2009

(Tahina spectabilis, growing at its only known site in western Madagascar) Photos courtesy of John Dransfield

Name: Tahina spectabilis

Common Name: Tahina Palm

Family: Arecaceae

How it made the Top 10: A gigantic new species and genus of palm with fewer than 100 individuals found only in a small area of northwestern Madagascar.  This plant flowers itself to death, producing a huge, spectacular terminal inflorescence with countless flowers. After fruiting, the palm dies and collapses.  The new genus is unrelated to any other of the 170 plus palms of Madagascar and is most closely related to 3 genera: one each in Afghanistan and neighboring parts of Asia; south Thailand; and Vietnam and southern China. 

Soon after the publication of the species, seeds were disseminated throughout the palm grower community, raising money for its conservation by the local villagers, and it has become a highly prized ornamental.

Reference: Dransfield, J., M. Rakotoarinivo, W.J. Baker, R.P. Bayton, J.B. Fisher, J.W. Horn, B. Leroy & X. Metz. 2008. A new coryphoid palm genus from Madagascar. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 156: 79-91.

Type Material: "Madagascar. Mahajanga, Analalava, Antsanifera, Antsingilava, 14°45′01″S, 47°25′53″E, altitude 9 m, 19.i.2007. Rakotoarinivo et alRMJ337 (holotypus K; isotypi BH, MO, P, TAN)."

Type Locality: The Analalava district of northwestern Madagascar.

Etymology: "Tahina – Malagasy for ‘blessed’ or ‘to be protected;’ also one of the given names of Anne-Tahina Metz, the daughter of the discoverer of the palm" and spectabilis from Latin, meaning notable or showy.


2. Phantastic Phasmatid!

รายชื่อ 10 สุดยอดของการค้นพบสิ่งมีชีวิตชนิดใหม่ 2009

Photos by Philip Bragg

Name: Phobaeticus chani

Common Name: None

Family: Phasmatidae

How it made the Top 10: This is the world's longest insect with a body length of 35.6cm (14 inches) and a overall length of 56.7 cm (22.3 inches).

Reference: Phobaeticus chani Bragg spec. nov. (p.138-141) in Hennemann, F.H. & V.O. Conle. 2008. Revision of Oriental Phasmatodea: The tribe Pharnaciini Günther, 1953, including the description of the world's longest insect, and a survey of the family Phasmatidae Gray, 1835 with keys to the subfamilies and tribes (Phasmatodea: "Anareolatae": Phasmatidae). Zootaxa 1906: 1-316.

Type material: Holotype: "[female] & eggs (removed from body): Sabah, Penampang district, Ulu Moyog, c. 650 m, Native, 25.II.1989 (BMNH, ex coll. CLC)."  Paratypes: "[female]: Sabah, Buntui, Sunsuron, J. Kulip, 10.X.1989 (FRSC)" and "[male]: Sabah, Sipitang, Coll. Yong Ah Lok, 15.IV.1983 (CLC)."

Type locality: Ulu Moyog, Penampang district, Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia.

Etymology: "This new species, the longest known extant insect of the world, is named in honour of C.L. Chan (Kota Kinabalu, Sabah) [...]."

3. Pea-sized Pony

รายชื่อ 10 สุดยอดของการค้นพบสิ่งมีชีวิตชนิดใหม่ 2009    

Color photo by John Sear; specimen photo by Rudie Kuiter

Name: Hippocampus satomiae

Common Name: Satomi's Pygmy Seahorse

Family: Syngnathidae

How it made the Top 10: This is the smallest known seahorse with a standard length of 13.8mm (0.54 inches) and an approximate height of 11.5mm (0.45 inches).

Reference: Lourie, S.A. & R.H. Kuiter. 2008. Three new pygmy seahorse species from Indonesia (Teleostei: Syngnathidae: Hippocampus). Zootaxa 1963: 54-68.

Type material: "Holotype: NMV A25420–001 (13.8 mm, male), Derawan Island, Kalimantan, Indonesia (02°17.690’N, 118°15.692’E), 10–18 m depth, on gorgonian Carijoa sp.? Muller 1867, October 2003, Satomi Onishi."  "Paratype: NMV A25420–002 (13.4 mm, female), collection details as for holotype."

Type locality: Derawan Island off Kalimantan (Indonesian portion of Borneo).

Etymology: This species name, satomiae, is "in honour of Miss Satomi Onishi, the dive guide who collected the type specimens."

4. A Mere Thread of a Snake

รายชื่อ 10 สุดยอดของการค้นพบสิ่งมีชีวิตชนิดใหม่ 2009                     

(The smallest snake, Leptotyphlops carlae, from Barbados) Copyright S. Blair Hedges

Name: Leptotyphlops carlae

Common Name: Barbados Threadsnake

Family: Leptotyphlopidae

How did it make the Top 10: This is the world's smallest snake with a total length of 104mm (4.1 inches).

Reference: Hedges, S.B. 2008. At the lower size limit in snakes: two new species of threadsnakes (Squamata: Leptotyphlopidae: Leptotyphlops) from the Lesser Antilles. Zootaxa 1841: 1-30.

Type material: "Holotype. USNM 564819, adult female, collected on 9 June 2006 under rock on ground near Bonwell, St. Joseph Parish, Barbados (Fig. 2A), 280 m (13° 11.196’ N, 59° 32.445’ W), by S. Blair Hedges and Carla Ann Hass. Field tag number 267708.  Paratypes. USNM 564818, from same locality; BM 89.7.5.27, from Barbados (no specific locality); BM 1969.792, from Codrington College, St. John Parish, Barbados, 100 m (13° 10.543’ N, 59° 28.481’ W); California Academy of Sciences (CAS) 49279, “St. John, Antigua,” collected by W. K. Fisher in July, 1918, on the Barbados-Antigua Expedition. This locality is interpreted to be in error; it is likely from St. John Parish, Barbados" [see discussion in Hedges, S.B. (2008)].

Type locality: Bonwell, St. Joseph Parish, Barbados, Lesser Antilles.

Etymology: The species name, carlae, is dedicated to the author's wife, Carla Ann Hass.

5. Welsh Rare Bit

รายชื่อ 10 สุดยอดของการค้นพบสิ่งมีชีวิตชนิดใหม่ 2009 

(Adult Ghost Slug and it's blade-like teeth each about 0.5mm long) Photos courtesy of Ben Rowson

Name: Selenochlamys ysbryda

Common Name: Ghost Slug

Family: Trigonochlamydidae

How it made the list: This charismatic, introduced species was a surprising find in such a well-collected and densely populated area.

Reference: Rowson, B. & W.O.C. Symondson. 2008. Selenochlamys ysbryda sp. nov. from Wales, UK: A Testacella-like slug new to Western Europe (Stylommatophora: Trigonochlamydidae). Journal of Conchology 39(5):537-552.

Type material: "Holotype (one adult, dissected): UK: Wales: Glamorgan: Cardiff: domestic garden in Canton (ST1676), 10-15m alt., leg. P. Thomas 28 Sep 2007, det. B. Rowson & W. O. C. Symondson (NMW.Z.2008.005.00001; 80% ethanol). S. ysbryda sp. nov., Paratype 1 (one adult, dissected): UK: Wales: Glamorgan: Cardiff: domestic garden in Canton (ST1676), 10-15m alt., leg. B. Rowson 8 Oct 2007, det. B. Rowson & W. O. C. Symondson (NMW.Z.2008.005.00002; 80% ethanol)." [For additional paratypes see Rowson & Symondson (2008)].

Type locality: Cardiff, Glamorgan, Wales, UK.

Etymology: "Specific epithet ysbryda, from Welsh “ysbryd,” a ghost or spirit, latinized by the addition of a feminine ending 'a' and to be treated as a noun in apposition. The name alludes to the species’ ghostly appearance, nocturnal, predatory behaviour and the element of mystery surrounding its origin."

6. A Snail that's Whorls Apart

รายชื่อ 10 สุดยอดของการค้นพบสิ่งมีชีวิตชนิดใหม่ 2009 

(Shell of Opisthostoma vermiculum) Photo courtesy of Reuben Clements

Name: Opisthostoma vermiculum

Common Name: None

Family: Diplommatinidae

How it made the Top 10: This species represents a unique morphological evolution in its manner of shell twisting. Most gastropod shells tightly coil according to a logarithmic spiral and have an upper limit of three coiling axes. The shell of O. vermiculum, however, possesses four different coiling axes - the most for any known gastropod. In addition, the whorls detach three times and reattach twice to preceding whorls in a fairly consistent manner, which suggests that the coiling strategy is under some form of strict developmental-gene control. Opisthostoma vermiculum appears to be restricted to a single limestone karst.

Reference: Clements, R., T.-S. Liew, J.J. Vermeulen and M. Schilthuizen. 2008. Further twists in gastropod shell evolution. Biology Letters 4: 179-182.

Type material: "Holotype: ZRC.MOL.002824, Gunung Rapat (4° 33' N, 101° 7' E), Perak, Peninsular Malaysia, held in RMBR. Two paratypes: ZRC.MOL.002825 and ZRC.MOL.002826, same data as holotype."

Type locality: Gunung Rapat, Perak, Malaysia.

Etymology: The specific epithet, vermiculum, is derived from Latin, "meaning wormy."

7. Finding Nemo's True Blue Cousin

รายชื่อ 10 สุดยอดของการค้นพบสิ่งมีชีวิตชนิดใหม่ 2009

Underwater photo by John Earle; specimen photo by Richard Pyle

Name: Chromis abyssus

Common Name: Deep Blue Chromis

Family: Pomacentridae

How it made the Top 10: The publication in which this new species and four others were described heralded a new era in the taxonomy of animal species. It represented the first taxonomic act of 2008, and the first act registered in the newly launched taxonomic database Zoobank. As a result, the original description  was the most downloaded article inZootaxa's history during its first month, and was among the top ten downloaded articles 11 months in 2008. The discovery of the new species also highlights how little we know of deep-reef biodiversity.

Reference: Pyle, R.L., J.L. Earle & B.D. Greene. 2008. Five new species of the damselfish genus Chromis(Perciformes: Labroidei: Pomacentridae) from deep coral reefs in the tropical western Pacific. Zootaxa 1671: 3-31.

Type material: "Holotype. BPBM 40861 (81.6 mm SL), Belau (Palau) Islands; off Ngemelis Island; below and slightly N of Blue Holes caverns (7°8'16.49"N, 134°13'18.5"E): above large rock outcrop, 110 m, hand net, R.L. Pyle, 27 April 2007 [PCMB 3113]. Paratypes. BMNH 2007.10.31.1 (50.2 mm SL) [PCMB 3103]. BPBM 40855 (3; 37.6–98.0 mm SL) [PCMB 3100, 3102]. CAS 225755 (64.1 mm SL) [PCMB 3105]. MNHN 2007.1922 (63.7 mm SL) [PCMB 3104]. USNM 391136 (2; 44.4–90.2 mm SL) [PCMB 3101]. WAM P.32898-001 (64.5 mm SL) [PCMB 3106]. All from same locality as holotype: sand and rubble slope with scattered rock outcroppings, 107–116 m, quinaldine and hand net, R.L. Pyle and B.D. Greene, 25 April 2007."

Type locality: Off the coast of Ngemelis IslandBelau (Palau) Islands.

Etymology: "Named abyssus, a Latinized form of the Greek noun abyssos (meaning 'abyss'), to honor the documentary film Pacific Abyss, produced by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), which funded the expedition on which the type specimens were collected. The vernacular name 'Deep Blue Chromis', a reference to both the life color of this species and the relatively (within the context of the genus) deep-dwelling habits, is suggested instead of the more literally translated 'Abyss Chromis', so as not to imply that the species inhabits depths commonly defined as 'abyssal.'"

8. Devonian Delivery

รายชื่อ 10 สุดยอดของการค้นพบสิ่งมีชีวิตชนิดใหม่ 2009

Photos courtesy of John A. Long

Name: Materpiscis attenboroughi

Common Name: Mother Fish

Family: Ptyctodontidae

How it made the Top 10: This new species is the oldest known vertebrate to be viviparous (live bearing).  The fossilized specimen is an extremely rare find, showing a mother fish giving birth approximately 380 million years ago.  The holotype specimen has been nicknamed "Josie" in honor of John Long's mother, who recently passed away. 

Reference: Long, J.A., K. Trinajstic, G.C. Young & T. Senden. 2008. Live birth in the Devonian period. Nature453(7195): 650–652.

Type material: "WAM 07.12.1 (Western Australian Museum, Perth)."

Type locality: "From the Stromatoporoid camp locality, Gogo Station, near Fitzroy Crossing, Western Australia (Late Devonian, early Frasnian)."

Etymology: "Generic name from the Latin meaning ‘mother fish’; species name in honour of Sir David Attenborough, who first drew attention to the Gogo fish sites in his 1979 series Life on Earth."

9. No Jump in these Beans

รายชื่อ 10 สุดยอดของการค้นพบสิ่งมีชีวิตชนิดใหม่ 2009

Color photos of live plant by François Anthony; photo of preserved specimen courtesy of Piet Stoffelen

Name: Coffea charrieriana

Common Name: Charrier Coffee

Family: Rubiaceae

How it made the Top 10: This is a new caffeine-free coffee from Cameroon, the first record of a caffeine-free species from Central Africa. Cameroon is a center of diversity for the genus Coffea and such wild species are potentially important in breeding programs. In this case the new species could be used for breeding of naturally decaffeinated beans.

Reference: Stoffelen, P., M. Noirot, E. Couturon & F. Anthony. 2008. A new caffeine-free coffee from Cameroon. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 158: 67-72.

Type Material: "Anthony 17 (BR!, holotype; specimen with bar-code BR-S.P. 000000872411), collected in 1997, Man-IRD coffee collection, Ivory Coast. Grown from cuttings collected from Cameroon, South-West Prov., Tombel Division, Bakossi Forest Reserve, 2 km east of bridge on the Mungo River, N4°44′ E9°35′, altitude 160 m, 14 February 1983."

Type Locality: Bakossi Forest Reserve, Tombel Division, Southwest Province, Cameroon.

Etymology: "The name is in honour of a Professor A. Charrier, who managed coffee breeding research and collecting missions at IRD during the last 30 years of the 20th century."

10. Spray-on New Species

รายชื่อ 10 สุดยอดของการค้นพบสิ่งมีชีวิตชนิดใหม่ 2009

Image by Erik Holsinger

Name: Microbacterium hatanonis

Common Name: None

Family: Microbacteriaceae

How it made the Top 10: Surprisinigly, this new species of extremophile bacteria was discovered in hairspray.

Reference: Bakir, M.A., T. Kudo & Y. Benno. 2008. Microbacterium hatanonis sp. nov., isolated as a contaminant of hairspray. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 58: 654-658.

Type Material: "The type strain, FCC-01T (=JCM 14558T =DSM 19179T), was isolated from hairspray."

Type Locality: None specified

Etymology: This new species is named in honor of Dr Kazunori Hatano, "for his contribution to the understanding of the genus Microbacterium."

Reference : https://species.asu.edu/Top10

 
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